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Research Methodology

Research methodology

What is research


Why do people do the research? What are the purposes and objectives of doing research?

There are several factors and motivations which influences in the research, such as: to get a research degree, to get the position in the college or university, to solve unsolved problem, to enjoy doing some creative work, to get recognition or even curiosity to learn new facts.

“Research is a process of steps used to collect and analyze information to increase the understanding of a topic or issue”, Creswell.

The word “Research” is composed of two words, Re and Search. (Re – is a prefix meaning “ again”, and search is a verb meaning “to examine closely and carefully, to test or probe”).

 

Importance of the research


Every day new problems occur, in business process or real life, while implementing the solutions and suggestions are required to start objectives of the research and findings for the better understanding and improvement.

Research is the process that must meet certain requirements to be called research.

 

Research study characteristics


Research process includes study framework which consists of

  • Philosophies (qualitative, quantitative and academic disciplinary writing)
  • Validity, (finding answers to questions)
  • Reliability (quality measurement procedure)

There are 6 characteristics which are qualifying every research, such as:

Controlled – meaning that in exploring causality in relation to two variables (factors), you set up your study in a way that minimizes the effects of other factors affecting the relationship.

Rigorous – must ensure that the process must follow the questions which are relevant, appropriate and justified.

Systematic – meaning that the procedure must be adopted to be undertaken in investigation.

Valid – this implies that whatever that conclude is based on the findings is correct and can be verified.

Empirical – meaning that the conclusion is based on the information’s which are collected through observation and real life experience.

Critical – Procedure must be foolproof and free from drawbacks.

 

Types of research


The basic types of research are as follows:

  • Applied vs Fundamental

Applied type of research aims at finding the solution for immediate problem (taking an action).

Fundamental type of research is an pure research that involves developing and testing theories and  hypotheses that are intellectually challenging to the researcher, but may or may not have practical application at the present time or in the future.

  • Descriptive vs Analytical

The major purpose of descriptive research is description of the state of affairs as it exists at present, on the other hand the analytical research has to use facts or information already available, and analyze these to make a critical evaluation of the material.

  • Quantitative vs Qualitative

Quantitative research is based on the measurement of quantity or amount, on the other hand the Qualitative research aims to discover the underlying motives and desires, using in depth interviews for the purpose.

 

The research process


There are practical steps through which you must pass in your research journey in order to find answers to your research questions.

The path to finding answers to your research questions constitutes research methodology.

Research process consists of series of actions or steps necessary to effectively carry out research and the desired sequencing of steps described below.

Steps in Research:

  1. Problem stated

To define the research problem the main function is to decide what you want to find out about.

There are several steps which need to be undertaken in the Problem stated phase such as:

Step 1:  Identify the interested area or subject.

Step 2:  Cut-up the areas into sub-areas.

Step 3:  Select the interested part.

Step 4: Prepare the research questions based on the problem stated.

Step 5: Propose the objectives

Step 6: Evaluate objectives

Step 7: Checklist

  1. Literature Review

In the process of literature review, study will be done from the similar literature which have been studied earlier.  Literature review is a collection of research publications, books and other documents related to the defined problem

A literature review is based on published information in a particular subarea, and sometimes such information is based not only in a particular sub area but also information published within a certain time period.  Literature review is a simple summary of the sources, but it usually has an organizational pattern and combines both summary and synthesis.

Focus of the literature review is to bring the clear picture of the problem, clarify the findings, improve the methodology, spread the knowledge and search for existing literature such as books and journals.

  1. Developing the objectives

In this phase the meaning of the objectives is to inform the audience clearly and specifically for the goals of the study.

There are main objectives (meaning overall statement of the study) and the sub-objectives (specific aspects of the topic) in the headings.

There are 3 types of objectives in the research methodology

  • Descriptive research

Descriptive research is also known as statistical research, which describes data and characteristics about the population or related research being studied.

  • A longitudinal research

A longitudinal research study is a study that involves repeated observations of the save variables often within longer periods of time or even decades.

  • Exploratory research

Exploratory research is a type of research conducted for a problem that has not been clearly defined. It helps to determine the best research design, data collected and to select the subject.

  1. Methodology

The function of Methodology process is to provide for the collection of relevant evidence with minimal expenditure of effort, time and money. Research methodology is a systematic way to solve a problem.

It is not necessary that every theory, technique and information in the topic of research is useful for a particular problem.

Preparation of the methodology or also called research design that involves the problem which have been studied and takes into consideration the following:

  • Objectives
  • Data collected or method used
  • Source information
  • Tools for data collected
  • Data analysis (Qualitative or Quantitative).
  1. Collecting the data

There are two types of methods for collecting the data:

  • Primary and Secondary data

Primary data means the data collected for the first time through surveys or experiment. Primary data can be collected in different ways, such as: observations, personal interview, telephone interview, mailing questionnaires or through schedules. Each of the mentioned ways have advantages and limitations on time consuming, unavailability for the answers, low or high cost per respond, flexible and nonflexible information.

Secondary data are data which have been collected before for different purposes.

  1. Analyze of data

After the data have been collected, the researcher turns to the task of analyzing them. Based on the process of the collection data and method used to collect the necessary data, this process is categorized into methods: Qualitative or Quantitative data or even both.

  • Qualitative method

It is called content analysis of the interview in order to identify the main objective. Qualitative research is concerned with qualitative phenomenon involving quality. Qualitative methods can be used to understand the meaning of the numbers obtained by quantitative methods.

  • Quantitative method

Quantitative research is based on the measurement of quantity or amount; it is a statistical method while the result of this research can be number or set of numbers. Results in the quantitative method mainly are presented in the graphs and tables.

Characteristics of Qualitative and Quantitative method

Qualitative method Quantitative method
Non-Numerical Numerical
Descriptive Non-descriptive
Given reason and uses words Applies statistical and mathematical numbers
Aim to get meaning, and describe situation Evidence of the evaluation
Non-graphed Results presented in graphs and tables
Investigation of why and how Investigation of what, where and when

 

  1. Interpretation

Interpretation refers to the task of drawing inferences from the collected facts after an analysis of the data. Through interpretation research can be well understandable the abstract beneath findings. It is the explanatory concept that can serve as a guide for future research studies.

Interpretation of the results is important because of the relations with the present and previous work, identification of the future problem, which in addition opens the route for new knowledge, helps others to understand significance and suggested goals.

  1. Results and Conclusion

Results and conclusion are ultimate goals of the research performed. Conclusion should be precise, clear and objective.  Importance of the conclusion is the connection between the phases or chapters included in the research.

 

Appendices and Bibliography


At the end of the report, appendices should be enlisted in respect of all technical data. Appendices are useful way to include relevant materials, such as questionnaire or interview schedule based on the methodology used.

Bibliography or References should give the clear and complete description of the source used for the research.

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